什麽是人文主義?

(鑒于華夏普遍缺乏科學知識和理性思維,我們組織中華人文主義者協會,旨在普及科學和邏輯,小心思考問題,而不是因爲既定立場而大叫大嚷。這篇是爲協會説明人文主義的宗旨而作,這個概念在外國已經非常流行、普及,但中華地區人士接觸甚少,甚爲可惜。我們歡迎和邀請所有人加入,包括大陸、臺灣、香港、澳門、海外和所有能用中文閲讀和書寫的人。有興趣者可以加入我們的Facebook群組論壇。我們投稿,欲投稿者請用電郵聯絡我們:chinesehumanist@gmail.com

要解釋什麽是人文主義並不容易。又或者可以說,整個想法其實很容易理解,但難以簡單的用一兩句去完整的表達它的意思。

一般所謂的主義,尤其是十九、二十世紀這個時段所形成的,是指由一連串的相關思想而形成的一套意識形態,信奉這些主義的人會根據意識形態去進行某些行爲。資本主義是以自由市場爲中心思想,認爲衹有透過市場來決定供需才能爲社會帶來最大的利益,相信資本主義的一般都認爲市場是萬能,所有政策都不能違反市場規則。共產主義則相反,它以馬克思的歷史觀和階級觀爲中心,認爲一切問題都是階級不平等的問題,衹要最貧困的階級獲得政治權力,他們才會從階級角度出發平均財富和資本,形成平等的社會。

也就是說,一般想到主義時,大多數人會首先想到這套意識形態要求的是什麽樣的行爲,這就是所謂的價值觀。做出有違這套價值觀所要求的行爲的,就不能視爲該主義的信奉者:資本主義者必須擁護市場,共產主義者必須擁護階級,消滅資本。所以對一般人來説,意識形態決定信奉者做什麽,想什麽,不做什麽,不想什麽:意識形態就是道德教條,必須要遵守,不遵守的就是不道德。

人文主義跟這些意識形態有相似之處,它依然是一套由一連串的相關思想而形成的一套想法,但我們不會將它視爲一套等同資本主義、共產主義或宗教的意識形態,因爲它不要求他人遵從一套必然的道德和思想準則。人文主義的中心思想是要盡可能提高人類社會的福祉,減少各種各樣的苦難,和讓人類活得有意義。但跟上述主義不一樣,它不提供一套既定答案;它的重點在於面對人類社會的實際問題,而不是假設衹要跟從某種想法,一切都變得美滿。世界是非常複雜,如果衹是盲從某些思想,認爲這些思想必然能夠解決所有問題,這種想法往往會引起大災難。不管是宗教或是其他意識形態,它們都假設自己的解釋和論述必然是正確無誤,這種想法就是漠視世界的複雜性,不去真正的認識事實,用幻想和無知去處理現實世界的問題,哪有不引起大災難之理?

因此,人文主義這個想法要求我們質疑既定答案的真確性,它是要我們去問問題:我們到底要如何提高人類社會的福祉,減少各種各樣的苦難?人類要如何活得有意義?這些方法是否真的有效?我們又怎樣知道?要回答這些問題,我們需要大量知識和一套客觀、可以驗證的思考方法科學和理性思維。科學所提供的答案並不是絕對,新的證據可以推翻已有的結論,但這並不是代表科學就是不確定,或者跟其他非科學的想法有同等地位,都是「理論」。科學是一套不斷自我更正、更新的知識整理系統;它有時會出錯並不代表科學方法不對,很多時候這些「錯誤」是來自人類認知能力的局限,而因爲我們認識到這個局限,所以科學界會不斷找方法克服它,以找出更正確的答案。

環繞「提高人類社會的福祉,減少各種各樣的苦難,讓人類活得有意義」這個主題,我們可以爲人文主義概括出三大原則:

  1. 理性的想清楚問題,尤其是影響到社會各範疇的問題;
  2. 質疑所有事物,不盲從附和,不盲目接受任何既定立場,包括自己的,不論這些立場聽起來有多好;
  3. 追求知識,根據知識、邏輯、證據去作出結論,如要使用這結論去回應現實的問題,必須想清楚成本收益、影響和風險。

爲了讓初次接觸人文主義的人更容易理解和應用這些原則,我們總結出九條信條,請參考《人文主義者信條》一章。這些信條,跟宗教的教條不一樣,它們不是要求做什麽或不做什麽的「道德要求」,而是一些很幫助思考現實的基本方法。如果他人不遵守,人文主義者不會譴責他不道德、認爲他罪大惡極或是爲他加上標籤:我們會選擇辯論和舉列事實去明辨是非,希望更多人可以理想的想問題。

如果想更深入了解人文主義,請參考《阿姆斯特丹宣言》、英國人文主義者協會美國人文主義者協會網站

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11 則回應給 什麽是人文主義?

  1. anon 說:

    這就是現在反核者所拿著把柄,說政府無能不能信任。話雖如此,雖然馬英九是魯鈍無能,他也可能是世上最蠢的政客,但這不代表政府不能有效監管核電廠

    Your statment makes you look mildly retarded. Go ask the Japanese living in Fukushima. They also thought their regulatory agency was up to the job.

    Who put the check and balance on the regulartory? Your ass?

    • 山中 說:

      Are you so retarded that you cannot even comment on the right article? Do you have the basic intelligence to understand that the head of government has no function in the regulatory system? Can your tiny brain understand Japan has an unique problem of its own? Are you so stupid that even the Japanese have shown you what the problems were, and you can’t come up with a plan to overcome them?

      Try pulling your head out of your ass once in a while to give your brain some much needed oxygen.

  2. anon 說:

    “the head of government has no function in the regulatory system?" That is your word. Mark it.

    Who regulates when regulatory agency fails? Oh Japan has an unique problem? radiation kills in Japan, but smells like lavender in Tawian. Unique. hahahahah

    • 山中 說:

      Some one as idiotic as you drive a car off a cliff. You watched the whole incident and proceed to drive yourself off the cliff in the same manner? Your little brain just can’t figure out how to install brakes and a steering system.

      And do you know how Daiichi got into trouble? Do you know how the international community is stepping in to prevent that?

      Man, how stupid are you?

      • anon 說:

        No, me don’t know how Daiichi gets in trouble. But one thing is for sure: THE REGULATORY AGENT DIDN’T WORK. And the government fails to step in before everything blow up.

        Man, how stupid are you?

      • anon 說:

        Some one as idiotic as you drive*s* a car off a cliff.

        Sorry, just students wouldn’t learn from the bad shit here. Holy, it smells here!

  3. anon 說:

    “the head of government has no function in the regulatory system?”

    hahahahahahaah

    • 山中 說:

      Hey, idiot, do you know anything about nuclear physics? Does a president or a prime minister go to a nuclear plant to check the safety issues? Do you even know how the world works?

      Oh, and you still can’t post comment under the right articles, how come you are such an idiot? Did you drink lead or take in too much CO2 when you were young?

  4. anon 說:

    “Does a president or a prime minister go to a nuclear plant to check the safety issues?"

    Wow, that is a new low.

    The only way to affect the safety of a nuclear plant to be physically there!? haahhahahaha

    Do you know what is a “wink wink, nudge nudge" in the world of power, idiot?

    • 山中 說:

      So you trust the head of government to regulate coal power plants, hospitals, fire stations, building safety, banking system, education, food safety, rail-road system?

      You know coal power plants kill way more than nuclear energy does? And you have no objection to coal power plants and them being regulated by the government? You know why you do that? It’s because you don’t have a brain.

  5. anon 說:

    “Does a president or a prime minister go to a nuclear plant to check the safety issues?”

    Do you eat poop poop for dinner, if not, how do you know it tasts good? hahhahhahhaha

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